HIV/AIDS: 37.7 Million People Are Living With HIV Worldwide 


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a chronic disease that impairs the immune system severely. It can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The worst part is, raising your inability to fight infections and diseases daily.

Over time, HIV destroys more CD4 cells. Therefore, the body is more likely to obtain various conditions and cancers.

HIV can not transfer through water, air, or casual contact. But, HIV is transmitted easily through:

  • Blood
  • breast milk
  • Semen
  • Vaginal and rectal fluid

There’s no definitive cure for HIV/AIDS, but medicines can prevent the infection and the progression of the disease. And help people with the virus to live a long and healthy life.

Smoking is the primary cause of 80% of people with Lung Cancer

Smoking is the primary cause of 80% of people with Lung Cancer

Symptoms of HIV:

The early stage of HIV is called the (acute infection stage). The patient’s immune system responds by producing antibodies, which are proteins that take measures to respond against the condition.

At this stage, some patients have no symptoms. Regardless, many people undergo symptoms in the first month, but they usually do not recognize HIV causes those symptoms. 

Early HIV symptoms include:

  • fever
  • nausea
  • general pains
  • rash
  • chills
  • sore throat
  • headache
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • abdominal pain

The patient feels the following symptoms as his condition develops:

  • Fever
  • Diarrhoea
  • Swollen lymph nodes 
  • Weight loss
  • Oral yeast infection (thrush)
  • Herpes zoster
  • Pneumonia
  • Fatigue

HIV leads to AIDS, and when a person becomes infected with AIDS, he begins to destroy his immune system. AIDS is one of the most common diseases in the United States. These are the symptoms of AIDS:

  • Chills
  • Chronic diarrhoea
  • Sweats
  • Recurring fever
  • Swollen lymph glands
  • White spots on your tongue or in the mouth
  • Persistent and unexplained fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Skin rashes
  •  Mumps

Causes of HIV:

HIV is discovered in the fluids of the body of the patient.

It includes blood, vaginal, semen and anal fluids, and breast milk.

HIV can not transfer through urine, sweat, or saliva.

The most common way of getting HIV is through having sex without a condom. These are ways a person may get HIV:

  • Sharing needles
  • Syringes
  • Injecting equipment
  • Transfer from mother to baby during pregnancy
  • breastfeeding

How does HIV become AIDS?

If someone with HIV with few symptoms for years ago, it may turn into AIDS. The CD4 T cell count falls below 200. The worst complication of AIDS is cancer.

Risk factors

Any person of any age, sex, sexual orientation, or race is susceptible to infection with HIV or AIDS.

Anyone has a high risk of HIV/AIDS if they:

  • Have unprotected sex
  • Have an STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection)
  • Use illicit injection drugs


HIV infection destroys the immune system, making the person can not fight any disease. Furthermore, it is much more likely to develop many infections and certain types of cancers.

Infections common to HIV/AIDS

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
  • Candidiasis (thrush)
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Cryptococcal meningitis
  • Toxoplasmosis

Cancers common to HIV/AIDS

  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • HPV-related cancers
  • Lymphoma

Diagnosis of HIV:

No test can detect the virus instantly after infection. But, HIV tests are very accurate.

There are three types of HIV tests:

  1. Antibody tests
  2. Antigen/antibody tests
  3. Nucleic acid tests (NAT)

An antigen/antibody test conducted by a lab on a blood sample from a vein can usually detect HIV from 18 to 45 days after infection. 

There is also a rapid antigen/antibody test known that is conducted through a finger stick. It takes from 18 to 90 days after infection.

Treatment of HIV:

They use Antiretroviral medicines to treat HIV. They work by preventing the virus from reproducing in the body, permitting the immune system to fix itself, and controlling other damage.

These are pills that the patient needs to take every day.

HIV can resist a single HIV medicine, but if the patient is taking a combination of different medications makes this much less possible, these medications must be prescribed by the haematologist.


  1. Use condoms every time you have sex
  2. PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is a medicine people at risk for HIV take to prevent HIV.
  3. Never Share Needles, Syringes, or Other Drug Injection Equipment
  4. Get tested for HIV regularly

Request an appointment if you want to speak to a hematologist by CliniDo

CliniDo wishes you a life full of happiness and serenity!